"Zero" cosmonauts - shiri don jirgin farko

"Zero" cosmonauts - shiri don jirgin farko

Shin tauraron sararin samaniya na farko Yuri Gagarin yana da magabata na gaske? Labarin zai mayar da hankali kan masu sa kai masu ƙarfin hali waɗanda suka sadaukar da rayuwarsu don ci gaba.

'Yan sama jannati. Su wanene su, kuma da gaske suke?

A cikin 2007, masu son rediyo biyu na Italiya sun fitar da bayanai kan siginar da suka katse a farkon wayewar sararin samaniya ta Soviet ta amfani da tsarin rediyo na wucin gadi.

Abin mamaki, a cikin tsangwama na rediyo a cikin rakodin, ana iya jin ku ba kawai bugun zuciyar karen Soviet na farko da aka harba cikin sararin samaniya ba, har ma da muryoyin mutane suna neman taimako.

Amma sai ya zama cewa waɗannan mutanen sun kasance a sararin samaniya a da. Yuri Gagarin? Shin Cosmonaut No. 1 da gaske yana da magabata?

Ba tare da wata shakka ba, fifiko a fagen 'yan sama jannati zai zama alamar nuna fifikon Tarayyar Soviet a fagen siyasar duniya, kuma ba kowa ne ke son wannan ba.

Ba da daɗewa ba, a cikin 1959, ƙwararrun Italiyanci sun kama siginar bayyananniya ta farko daga kayan Soviet "Sputnik-1", Wasu hukumomin gwamnati sun zama masu sha'awar ayyukansu kuma sun ɗauki nauyin" binciken "su don musayar bayanan aiki game da duk abin da ke faruwa a sararin samaniyar USSR.

Tauraron dan adam na farko na duniya

Sakamakon ba da daɗewa ba yana zuwa: tuni a cikin Disamba 1959, kamfanin dillancin labarai na Italiya Continental ya sanar da jama'a cewa a cikin 1957-1959 a cikin Tarayyar Soviet ana gudanar da gwaje-gwajen ɓarna na ɗan adam don ƙaddamar da makamai masu linzami zuwa sararin samaniya, wanda mutane masu rai ke jagoranta.

A cikin bayanin nata, hukumar Nahiyar ta yi magana kan wani shugaban 'yan gurguzu na Czech wanda ya yi ikirarin cewa an kashe kimanin taurarin sararin samaniya 11 lokacin da aka harba rokokin Soviet.

Jaridar Yamma; nan take ya ɗauki nauyin fallasa shirin sararin samaniya na Soviet, yana ƙarawa cikin jerin matattun masu gwajin duk sababbi: sunaye: Dedovsky, Shaborin, Milkov, Ilyushin, Bondarenko, Zavadovsky, Mikhailov, Kostiv, Tsvetov, Nefedov, Kiryushin ...

A lokaci guda, mutane kaɗan ne suka san cewa rabin waɗannan matukan jirgi suna raye bayan tashin Gagarin, sauran rabin kuma ba su taɓa wanzu ba.

Kuma me yasa irin wannan kwarin gwiwa cewa "muryoyin" akan tef ɗin Italiya da gaske na mutane masu rai ne? Gaskiyar ita ce wasu daga cikin makamai masu linzamin ballistic sun sami ... fasinjoji. Amma rawar da suka taka ta misali mannequins, wanda aka yi wa raha da suna "Ivan Ivanovich" saboda kamannin su na kama mutane.

Tabbas, menene za ku yi tunani lokacin da kuka ga sojoji sun yi shiru suna fitar da "gawarwakin marasa rai" daga jirgin da ke saukowa, suna ɗora su a kan jirgin sama mai saukar ungulu da tafi da su ba tare da bayyana wata kalma ga wakilan kafofin watsa labarai ba? Kuma wasu daga cikin "Ivanoviches" har ma an kawo su tare da rikodin rikodin rikodin muryoyin mutane. Wataƙila masu sha'awar Italiya sun lura da "kukan neman taimako"?

A iyakar iyawar mutum

Kuma duk da haka ba za a iya tabbatar da cewa farkon Soviet cosmonaut ba shi da magabata. Domin a yi nasarar tserewa zanga -zangar Gagarin da nasara, an buƙaci cikakkun bayanai kan cunkoso da ke jiran mutum a sararin samaniya.

A karshen wannan, a cikin Yuni 1953, a kan Cibiyar Nazarin Jiragen Sama da Magungunan Sararin Samaniya, an kafa ƙungiyar asirin mutane 12 masu cikakkiyar lafiya masu aikin sa kai, waɗanda yakamata su gwada duk matsalolin jiragen sama a cikin yanayin dakin gwaje -gwaje.

A hukumance, "Detachment-O" bai wanzu kwata-kwata, amma a zahiri, an sanya wa masu gwajin lambar serial kuma sun yi gargadin cewa daga cikin yuwuwar sakamakon gwaje-gwaje za a iya samun kowane irin cututtuka na kullum, nakasa har ma da mutuwa.

Abin da waɗannan masu ba da agaji masu ƙarfin hali suka jimre za a iya tantance su ta hanyar bayanin gwajin da aka yi a cibiyar bincike. Misali, likita Jamusanci Manovtsev, masanin ilimin halitta Andrei Bozhka da injiniya Boris Ulybyshev dole ne su kwashe shekara guda a cikin murabba'in mita 12 na M. Zauren da aka ware daga waje. mita tare da fanka mai ci gaba da taɓarɓarewa, don masana kimiyya su iya gwada ƙungiya don dacewa da hankali.

Wasu "'yan damfara biyu", Viktor Ren da Mikhail Novikov, sun kwashe tsawon awanni 6 suna kokarin kawar da sararin samaniyarsu a cikin matattarar matsin lamba, sannan sun shafe awanni 72 suna rataye a cikin Bahar Maliya don gano menene ƙarin kuɗi 'yan sama jannatin sun bukaci su tsira bayan saukar gaggawa cikin teku. Kuma Novikov mai ƙarfin hali shima ya shiga cikin gwaji don ƙayyade iyakokin jimiri na jikin mutum a -40 ° C.

Kasancewa a cikin tundra na awanni 40 a cikin wasu rigunan horo, masu gwajin sun taimaka wa masana kimiyya su haɓaka rigunan rufin ɗumama wanda taurarin sararin samaniya na gaba zasu iya jure sanyi na awanni 72. Wannan shine tsawon lokacin da masu aikin ceto zasu same su ko'ina a Duniya.

Dangane da masu gwajin da kansu, sun ɗauki shekaru 35 don zama mahimmin shekaru ga kansu: waɗanda suka tsira daga gare ta kuma ba a rubuta su ba don lafiya sun rayu har zuwa tsufa, yayin da biyar "aka kashe" - Ogurtsov, Druzhinin, Greshkov, Nikolaev da Kopan - ba su daɗe ba.

Adadin lamba zero

Kamar yadda kuka sani, Yuri Gagarin ya yi yawo a duniya a cikin kumbon Vostok-1. Amma mutane kalilan ne suka san cewa shekara guda da ta gabata "lambar sararin samaniya ba komai" Sergei Nefedov, ainihin madadin Gagarin, ya gwada kayan aikin sirri "Vostok -0" da ke aiki - ainihin kwafin jirgin wanda zai gaje shi. Kawai duk gwaje -gwajen tsarin tallafin rayuwa sun faru ba a cikin kewaya ba, amma a cikin yanayin dakin gwaje -gwaje.

Babban fasali "Zero" cosmonaut Nefedov akwai cikakkiyar kamanninsa na ɗan adam tare da tauraron ɗan adam na 1: tsayi iri ɗaya, nauyi har ma da bayyanar. Babban aikin ɗalibi shine ya dandana a doron ƙasa sau da yawa fiye da abin da Gagarin ya yi tsammani a sararin samaniya, da kuma gaya wa “na asali” game da yadda yake ji. Misali, idan a cikin jirgin Gagarin ya shafe sa'o'i da yawa a cikin "amfrayo", to Nefedov ya shafe wata guda a ciki, kuma ba tare da kwaikwayon rashin nauyi ba.

Hakanan sararin samaniya na Gagarin ya kasance "sassaka" daga Nefedov, wanda dole ne ya jure tsawon "kayan aiki" daga filasta, yana tsayawa na awanni cikin wani yanayi mara daɗi. Da zarar "lambar cosmonaut zero" ta cika aiki sosai yayin wani gwaji tare da abinci mai gina jiki a cikin matsanancin yanayi wanda ya shafe awanni 4 akan teburin aiki: ciki kawai ya ƙi narkar da abinci ...

Koyaya, madadin ya zama mai ƙarfi, kuma a ƙarshen 1961 ya shiga sahun masu gwajin hukuma. Yanzu ya haura shekaru 80, amma har yanzu yana cikin fara'a kuma har yanzu yana mafarkin sararin samaniya.

Zai zama mai ban sha'awa don karanta:

Add a comment

Ba za a buga adireshin imel ɗinka ba. Обязательные поля помечены *